Telecommunication is the transmission of signals, sounds and messages or information by Electrical means or by Electromagnetic means such as wires, radios, optical, fibers, and other electromagnetic systems.
Telecommunication is achieved when the exchange or transmission of information between the sender and the receiver is successful. Transmission can be either Electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via Electromagnetic radiation. The transmission tracks are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing.
A revolution in wireless communication started in the first decade of the 200th century with early developments in radio communications by Gugliemo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, and other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications.
Telecommunications and broadcasting are carried out worldwide by an agency of the United Nations called the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Most countries have their own agencies for carrying out telecommunications regulations.
In the early days, means of communicating occurs over a distance using visual signals, such as smoke signals, beacons, signal flags, semaphore telegraphs, and optical heliographs. Wireless communication revolution began in the first decade of the 20th century with the developments in radio communications pioneered by Guglielmo Marconi.
In 1909 he won the Nobel Prize in Physics, and other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications include Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone), Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse (inventors of the telegraph), Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth (some of the inventors of television), Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest (inventors of radio)
1. It allows the free flow of information and communication.
2. Telecommunication enables information sharing thereby adding improvement to society.
3. Telecommunication boost teamwork in organization and parastatals.
4. Telecommunication is a veritable tool for economic growth.
5. Telecommunication saves time and cost.
6. It serves as a source of self-employment.
7. It provides job opportunities.
Most new-age telecommunications systems are best described in terms of a network. There are six basic components of a telecommunications network.
1. Input and also output devices also called "terminals": These helps to provide the starting and stopping points of all forms of communication. A telephone is an example of what a terminal is. In computer networking, these devices are commonly called nodes and they consist of computer and peripheral devices.
2. Telecommunication Channels: These help to transmit and receive data.
3. Telecommunication Processors: These help to provide an amount of control and support functions. For Example, in so many systems, data needs to be converted from digital to analog and back.
4. Control Software: This is responsible for controlling the functionality and regular activities of the network.
5. Messages: These are represented by the actual data that is being transmitted.
6. Protocols: These specify how each form of telecommunication system handles the transmitted messages.
The three principal types of telecommunication networks can be explained based on their geographical scope. They are:
1. Local Area Networks: This a privately accessed network that interconnects various processors, which are usually microprocessors within a building or on a campus site that has very high buildings.
2. Wide Area Networks: This is a telecommunication network that covers a wide geographical area.
3. Metropolitan Area Networks: These are telecommunication networks that interconnect different local area networks within a metropolitan area, that is, within a 50-mile radius.
Some of the various forms and generations of Telecoms include:
GSM uses time division access and it means: Global System for Mobile Communication used to transmit mobile data and mobile services.
GPRS means General Packet Radio System. it is a third-generation to have internet access. GPRS has a big data rate and it has easy billing.
LTE means Long Term Evolution which is equivalent to the 4G Technology recently utilized.
WAP means Wireless Application Protocol, it has been demonstrated as I mode which means internet mode.
WiMAX meaning World Wide Interoperability of Microwave Access. It is based on Wireless MAN technology. It offers about 40 Mbs.
WiFi a wireless technology meaning Wireless Fidelity.
WML is a Wireless Mark up Language.
Telecommunication links can be implemented with different communication media with a diverse variety of characteristics. The main characteristic of a medium is its potential transmission speed, also called Channel Capacity, which is expressed in bits per second (bps) in data transmission. A different measure of transmission channel capacity is bandwidth - the range of signal frequencies that can be transmitted over the channel.
Six media are employed to implement telecommunication links:
1. Twisted Pair
2. Coaxial Cable
3. Fiber Optics Cable
4. Terrestrial Microwave.
5. Satellite Transmission
6. Radio Transmission.
Switches, computers, terminals that are interconnected by network links are called Nodes collectively. The purpose of network control is to provide a connection between nodes that need to communicate.
Telecommunication Network Topology is the way nodes are linked in a telecommunication network.
A Telecommunication Network Topology has to fit and match the structure of the organizational units that will make use of the network, and this topology should be adapted to the unit's communication inflow patterns and to the way, the databases will be stored in order to allow access to them.
The following are network topologies that are widely used:
1. Hierarchical Network
2. Star Network
3. Ring Network.
4. Bus Network.
Many users can be connected simultaneously to a network of communication channels. Switching devices create connections between nodes that need to communicate over a network. Important techniques for switching include:
1. Circuit Switching.
2. Packet Switching.
3. Fast Packet Switching.
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