A signal is a representation of how one parameter alternates with another parameter. For example, a voltage varying over time in an electronic circuit, or brightness changing with distance in an image. A system is any method that produces an output signal in response to a signal that was used as an input. Consecutive systems input and output continuous signals, such as the ones found in analog electronics. Private systems input and output discrete signals, such as computer programs that handle the that are values stored in arrays.

Signals and systems are generally discussed without identifying the exact parameters that are being represented. This is the same as using x and y in algebra mathematics, without specifying a concrete meaning to the variables. This bring forth the fourth rule for naming signals. If a more descriptive name is not specified, the input signal to a discrete system is normally called x[n], while the output signal is called y[n]. For constant systems, the signals x(t) and y(t) are used.

There are many reasons for wanting to learn about a system. For example, you may want to design a system to remove the noise that is observed in an electrocardiogram, sharpen the out-of-focus in an image, or to remove echoes in an audio recording. In other cases, the system might have a deformity or an interfering effect that you need to describe or measure. For instance, when you speak into a phone, you suppose the other person would hear something that resembles your voice. Sadly, the input signal to a transmission line is scarcely identical to the output signal. If you know how the transmission line is modifying the signal, maybe you can work toward offering solutions for its effect. In other cases, the system may denote some physical process that you want to study or understand. Radar and sonar are very good examples of this. These methods work by comparing the signals that are transmitted and reflected to find out the characteristics of an object in a remote area. In the areas of system theory, the problem is to find the system that converts the transmitted signal into the received signal.

At first view, it may seem like an overwhelming job to understand all of the possible systems in the world. Luckily, most useful systems fall into a classification that is referred to as linear systems. This fact is very much important. Without the concept of linear systems, we would be required to explore the individual components of many systems that are unrelated. With this method, we can then focus alone on the traits of the linear system category as a whole.

This course is designed for students and all passionate learners, who are willing to learn signals and systems in simple and easy steps. This course will give you a deep understanding of basic Signals and Systems concepts. After completing this course, you will be at an intermediate level of expertise from where you can take yourself to a higher level of expertise.

Below are some of the features and characteristics of Signals and Systems.

**1. Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals:** A signal is continuous when it is defined for all instants of time and a signal is said to be discrete when it is defined at only discrete instants of time.

**2. Deterministic and Non-deterministic Signals:** A signal is deterministic if there is no uncertainty with respect to its value at any instant of time. Or, signals which can be defined exactly by a mathematical formula are known as deterministic signals. Non-deterministic signals are modeled in probabilistic terms, it is non-deterministic if there is uncertainty with respect to its value at some instant of time. Non-deterministic signals are random in nature hence they are called random signals. Random signals cannot be described by a mathematical equation.

**3. Even and Odd Signals:** A signal is referred to be even when it satisfies the condition x(t) = x(-t), and is said to be odd when it satisfies the condition x(t) = -x(-t).

**4. Periodic and Aperiodic Signals:** A signal is referred to be periodic if it satisfies the condition x(t) = x(t + T) or x(n) = x(n + N).

**5. Energy and Power Signals:** A signal is referred to as an energy signal when it has finite energy and is referred to be a power signal when it has finite power. A signal cannot be both, energy and power simultaneously. Also, a signal may be neither energy nor power signal.

**6. Real and Imaginary Signals:** A signal is referred to be real when it satisfies the condition x(t) = x*(t), and a signal is referred to as odd when it satisfies the condition x(t) = -x*(t). For a real signal, the imaginary part should be zero. Similarly for an imaginary signal, the real part should be zero.

Some of the benefits of Signals and Systems include:

1. Knowledge of Signals And Systems allows you to know how to build or modify existing signals and systems.

2. Knowledge of the basics of Signals and Systems can be used for both fun and profit.

3. The basics of Signals and Systems lets you understand how most of the systems in the world works.

4. Understanding the basics of signals and systems equips you with the technical skills that are necessary for engineers who are concerned with system design.

1. Use real-world machines, process systems and create mathematical models, which apply stimuli and analyze the response(signals).

2. Knowledge in Signals and Systems enables you to go on to study Control Systems, RF Engineering, and others with ease.

3. Career Opportunity And Advancement.

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