Microwave Engineering refers to the study and design of Microwave circuits, systems and components. The fundamental principles of engineering are being applied to the analysis, design and measurement techniques in this sector. The short wavelengths that are involved make this discipline different from Electronic engineering. This is because there are various interactions that are happening within the circuits, transmissions and propagation characteristics at the various microwave frequencies.
The term Microwave is used to identify any electromagnetic waves that are above 103 megahertz (which is equals to 1 Gigahertz) up to 300 Gigahertz because of the short physical wavelengths of these frequencies. Short wavelength energy presents us with distinct advantages in many applications. For example, sufficient directivity can be gotten by using a relatively small antenna and low-power consumption transmitters. These individual characteristics are perfect for use in both military and civilian radar and communication technologies applications. Small antennas and other small features are made feasible by Microwave Frequency applications. The size advantage can be regarded as part of a solution to the various problems of space, or weight, or both of them.
The use of Microwave Frequency is very important for the design of radar that is found in shipboards because it makes possible for the detection of smaller targets. Microwave Frequencies offer special problems in the transmission, generation, and design of circuits that are not faced at lower frequencies. Conventional circuit theory is mostly dependant on voltages and currents while Microwave Theory is based on the fields of electromagnetic.
Equipment and techniques may be described simply as "Microwave" when the wavelengths of its signals are approximately the same as the dimensions of the equipment in such a way that the model of the lumped-element is inaccurate. As a result, the practical Microwave technique happens to move away from the discrete resistors, inductors, and capacitors, that are used together with lower frequency radio waves. Instead, the distributed-element model and transmission-line theory present more useful methods for design and analysis.
1. Communications And Remote Sensing: Communications systems include satellite, radio, television, wireless phone, data transmission applications, and all combinations of these. Numerous special communications applications such as point-to-point communications have replaced the use of telephone lines in metropolitan regions where the lines are very expensive to install. The most well-known remote sensing systems are Radars, it provided the major incentive for the development of microwave technology because only this region of the spectrum could provide the required resolution with antennas of reasonable size. Another class of remote sensing is radiometry. Radiometric systems need no transmitter, they merely collect naturally-occurring electromagnetic energy and process its to form images.
2. Electronic Warfare: This is a military application of microwaves involving specialized broadband receivers and high-power jamming transmitters. The receivers are used to monitor the enemy’s transmissions passively, primarily for intelligence purposes.
3. Commercial Application: This is the most familiar consumer application of microwave engineering, the application uses a minimum of sophisticated microwave circuitry but has revolutionized the technique for heating foods and other products without convectively heating their entire surroundings. Commercial applications of microwave technology include the front-end of much of the wireless stuff used every day, such as cell phones, pagers, wireless LANs, satellite television, XM Radio, and that cool GPS playtoy
4. Basic Research And Science Application: Atomic clocks use microwave resonance interactions with either ammonia or cesium molecules to provide extremely stable oscillating frequencies.
The following are the main features of Microwave Engineering:
1. Microwaves are the generally electromagnetic waves that radiate electromagnetic energy with a shorter wavelength.
2. Microwaves are not reflected by the Ionosphere.
3. Microwaves signals travel in a straight line and are reflected by surfaces.
4. Microwaves are easily reduced within shorter distances.
5. Microwave currents can easily flow through a very thin layer of a cable.
There are many advantages of Microwave Engineering and some of them are:
1. They support much larger bandwidth transfer and therefore, more information is transmitted through it. For this reason, Microwaves are used for point-to-point communications eg radar.
2. More gain in the antenna is possible.
3. Higher data transfer rates are transmitted as the bandwidth is much more.
4. The size of the antennas gets reduced, as the frequencies are much higher.
5. Low power consumption as the signals are of higher frequencies.
6. The effect of fading gets noticeably reduced by using the line of sight propagation.
7. It provides an effective reflection area in the systems used in radar.
8. Satellite and terrestrial communications with very high capacities and capabilities are made possible with Microwave Engineering.
9. Low-cost miniature microwave features and components can be developed.
1. RF and microwave engineering helps to make many aspects of our day-to-day lives possible, from mobile phones and Wi-Fi to radios and radar systems.
2. High demand for skilled radio frequency (RF) and microwave engineers in the communications, space, aerospace, automotive industries, among others.
3. Go in-depth into wireless communications, space technology, and advanced gigahertz and terahertz microwave technologies.
4. Job Opportunity and Career Advancement.
5. Entrepreneurship Opportunity and Consultancy.
Microwave Engineering - Electromagnetic Theory
Microwave Engineering - Transmission Line Theory
Microwave Engineering - Transmission Lines And Waveguides
Microwave Engineering - Microwave Network Analysis
Microwave Engineering - Impedance Matching And Tuning
Microwave Engineering - Microwave Resonators
Microwave Engineering - Power Dividers And Directional Couplers
Microwave Engineering - Microwave Filters
Microwave Engineering - Theory And Design Of Ferrimagnetic Components
Microwave Engineering - Noise And Nonlinear Distortion
Microwave Engineering - Active Rf And Microwave Devices
Microwave Engineering - Microwave Amplifier Design
Microwave Engineering - Oscillators And Mixers
Microwave Engineering - Introduction To Microwave Systems
Microwave Engineering - Exams And Certification
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