Microprocessor Course And Certification

What is a Microprocessor?

A Microprocessor is a computer processor that combines together the functions of a central processing unit into a single integrated circuit popularly abbreviated as IC, or sometimes up to 8 integrated circuits.

A Microprocessor is also defined as multipurpose, register-based, clock-driven, digital integrated circuit that takes in binary data as its input, processes it according to the instructions that are stored in its memory and gives out results (also in binary form) as its output. Microprocessors consist of both sequential digital logic and combinational logic. Microprocessors work on numbers and symbols that are represented in the binary number system.

The integration of a whole CPU - Central Processing Unit onto a single or a few integrated circuits greatly takes down the cost of the processing power. Integrated circuit processors are produced in very large quantities by highly automated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) fabrication processes, this brings about a low price per each unit of it. Single-chip processors increase the reliability of Microprocessor because there are fewer electrical connections that could fail. As the designs of microprocessors improve, the cost of manufacturing a single chip (together with smaller components that are built on a semiconductor chip that is the same size) generally stays the same.

Before microprocessors were developed, small computers had been built by using racks of circuit boards with many small and medium-scale integrated circuits. Microprocessors join this together into one or a few large-scale ICs. Continued development increases in microprocessors capacity have since rendered other kinds of computers almost completely useless, with one or more microprocessors being found in every electronic device from the tiniest embedded systems, calculators, handheld mobile devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers.

Components of a Microprocessor

1. Arithmetic And Logic Unit: This performs math computations, such as subtraction, addition, division, and Boolean functions. Boolean functions are a type of logic used for circuit designs. The ALU also executes comparisons and logic testing. The processor transmits signals to the ALU, which interprets the instructions and performs the calculations.

2. Registers: Microprocessors have temporary data holding places called registers. These memory areas maintain data, such as computer instructions, storage addresses, characters, and other data. Some computer instructions may require the use of certain registers as part of a command. 

3. Control Unit: This receives signals from the CPU, which instructs the control unit to move data from the microprocessor to the microprocessor. The control unit also directs the arithmetic and logic unit. Control units consist of multiple components, such as decoder, clock, and control logic circuits. Working together, these devices transmit signals to certain locations on the microprocessor.

4. Buses: Microprocessors have a system of buses, which move data. Buses refer to classifications of wiring that have specific tasks and functions. The data bus transfers data between the central processing unit and random access memory (RAM) -- the computer's primary memory. The control bus sends information necessary to coordinate and control multiple tasks. The address bus transmits the address between the CPU and the RAM for data being processed.

5. Cache Memory: Some advanced microprocessors have memory caches, which retain the last data used by the CPU. Memory caches speed up the computing process because the CPU does not have to go to the slower RAM to retrieve data. Many computers have level 1 or level 2 caches; some systems have level 3 caches. The cache level indicates the order in which the CPU checks for data, starting with level 1. Manufacturers often integrate level 2 and level 3 caches into the microprocessor, which enhances processing speed.

Applications of a Microprocessor

1. The microprocessors are used in modems, telephone, digital telephone sets, and also in air reservation systems and railway reservation systems.

2. The microprocessor is used in the medical instruments to measure temperature and blood pressure.

3. It is also used in mobile phones and television.

4. It is used in calculators and game machines.

5. It is used in the accounting system and data acquisition system.

6. The microprocessor is used in personal computers (PCs).

7. The microprocessor is used in LASER printers for good speed and making automatic photocopies. 

8. It is also used in traffic light control.

Features of a Microprocessor

Some of the features of Microprocessors that make them a fundamental tool in the design and development of electronic devices are:

1. Cost-effective: Microprocessor chips are easily available at very low prices because they are produced in large quantity and this results in a very low cost.

2. Size: The microprocessor is a very small-sized chip, thereby, making it portable.

3. Low Power Consumption: Microprocessors are produced by using metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which has a very low power consumption.

4. Versatility: The microprocessors are usages that are broad and versatile since we can use the same chip in a number of applications by configuring the software program.

5. Reliability: The failure rate of an IC in microprocessors is very low, these features make it very reliable.

Benefits of a Microprocessor

There are lots of benefits and advantages of Microprocessors and some of them are:

1. Microprocessors reduce the cost of operation, particularly fuel-saving by optimizing control strategies.

2. Reduce products give away through more uniform operations and lighten control enforcement.

3. Microprocessors improve the responsiveness to change in process, product specification and the addition of new products.

4. Microprocessors incorporate various strategies to minimize the product offset resulting from the failure of plant equipment or unanticipated process conditions and to improve plant safety

5. Microprocessors improve more timely information on the operations of plants and maintenance managers to let them keep a plant running longer and more efficiently.

6. Improve the integration of plant operations through co-ordinated control strategies.

7. It allows for the exchange of information with another plant for proper synchronization.

Why Study Microprocessor?

1. For Internet Of Things: Also known as IoT, microprocessors can be used in embedded controllers, in traffic lights control and mainly as the heart of computers, know how the computer works, and how it stores data. 

2. For Job Security and Career Opportunities

3. Increase Your Earning Potential

4. Entreneurship Opportunity and Consultancy

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