A Hologram is defined as a physical structure that makes use of various diffraction of light to make an image, the produced image can emerge as a three-dimensional object. Holography is simply defined as the science and practice of making holograms. basically, a hologram is a detailed and photogenic recording of a captured light field, rather than an image that is produced by a device without a lens.
The Holographic Medium, for example, the object that is generated by a holographic process (which on its own might be referred to as a hologram) is normally unintelligible when viewed under dispersed ambient light. Holography is a digital encoding of the field of light as a pattern of interference of several variations in the density, opacity, or surface profile of the photographic medium. When suitably it is suitably lit, the interference pattern diffracts the light into a more accurate reproduction of the original field of light and the objects that were in it display visual depth tips such as perspective and parallax that change realistically with the relative position or viewpoint of the observer. That is, the view of the image from several different angles represents the subject when viewed from angles.
Holographic data storage is a high data storage capacity technology that enables data storage by creating holographic images of each data instance on a supported medium. It is based on the similar concept of optical storage devices but it enables the use of a single storage volume to store large amounts of data.
Here are the basic components that are needed to construct an HDSS:
1. Blue-green argon laser
2. Mirrors to direct the laser beams
3. LCD panel (spatial light modulator)
4. Lenses to focus the laser beams
5. Beam splitters to split the laser beam
6. Lithium-niobate crystal or photopolymer
7. Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera
There are many features of Holography Technology and some of them are:
1. 2D: This type of hologram is based on a graphic image, on which all the elements are recorded on to one optical level. Microstructures and Gratings produce a higher high diffraction efficiency, more brilliant colors and more advanced dynamic effects.
2. 2D/3D: When compared to the 2D hologram, in which all the optical information is saved on one level, the graphical elements that belong to a 2D/3D hologram are isolated from each other and stored on several different, and more superimposed layers, implementing a sense of optical depth (known as the parallax effect). Various combinations with three-dimensional objects in the background are also made possible in this type of hologram.
3. 3D/2D: This hologram joins together a 2D hologram with a 3D hologram, the 2D component being run in the background. The 3D component displays the original object on the foreground either as in a true scale or simply as a stereogram, the 2D component is always used from a graphic image.
4. Black and White Switch: A novel optical effect that is made up of an achromatic 3D hologram changing in different areas among black and white when turning the hologram to 90 degrees. This is frequently used as a special security feature in a hologram to make it hard to imitate and easy to check.
5. Key and Lock System: Special digital watermarking, that is based on lines or on other graphical elements, which is made up of hidden information can be revealed with special screens.
When the blue-green argon laser is fired, a beam splitter creates two beams. One beam, called the object or signal beam, will go straight, bounce off one mirror and travel through a spatial-light modulator (SLM). An SLM is a liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows pages of raw binary data as clear and dark boxes. The information from the page of binary code is carried by the signal beam around to the light-sensitive lithium-niobate crystal. Some systems use a photopolymer in place of the crystal. A second beam, called the reference beam, shoots out the side of the beam splitter and takes a separate path to the crystal. When the two beams meet, the interference pattern that is created stores the data carried by the signal beam in a specific area in the crystal -- the data is stored as a hologram. Other applications of holography such as personal holography are still underway.
There are many benefits of Holography Technology and some of them are:
1. Holography technology equipments are very cost-effective and provide more advantages than its price.
2. Holography technology applications have a much higher storage capacity
3. Holography technology applications have increased the feasibility of objects.
4. Holography technology enables the achievement of several images on a single plate and 3D objects or images.
5. Holography technology equipment has the ability to be combined with other technologies to increase its functions.
6. High Precision Measurements: Holography is a very effective instrument for carrying out very high precision measurements. When an object is illuminated, the pattern of light beams that appears after passing it, and which can be picked up on a photographic plate, is unique, like a fingerprint. To see if there has been any kind of change in an object, it is possible to capture that pattern (called the wavefront) at different times and compare them.
7. Great Accuracy: Holography makes it possible to determine with great accuracy, if any deformations have occurred on any object, even if the changes are as small as the wavelength of the light used.
8. Difficult to Falsify: Holograms are very difficult to falsify because it is almost impossible to get the same wavefront from something, if it is not part of the same object and if the whole process used to make the hologram is also not the same.
9. Security: The hologram is applied in security, such as the small holograms that appear on banknotes and certificates, making them hard to falsify.
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