A digital circuit is a circuit in which the signal must be one of two discrete levels. Each level is interpreted as one of two different states (for example, on/off, 0/1, true/false). Digital circuits make use of transistors to create logic gates in order to perform Boolean logic. This logic is the foundation of digital electronics and computer processing. Digital circuits are less susceptible to noise or reduction in quality than analog circuits. It is also easier to carry out error detection and correction with digital signals. To automate the process of designing digital circuits, engineers use electronic design automation (EDA) tools, a type of software that optimizes the logic in a digital circuit.
The simplest forms of digital circuits are built from logic gates, Since most of the physical variables encountered in the real world, e.g., position and temperature, exist in analog form, they are represented electrically by continuously varying currents and voltages in analog circuits. To make digital and analog circuits compatible special converters are used either analog-to-digital or digital-to-analog depending on the direction of information flow. Digital circuits simulate continuous functions with strings of bits; the more bits that are used, the more accurately the continuous signal can be represented
This tutorial would teach you about Digital Circuit and will also take you through various concepts related to Digital Circuit starting from NAND gates and Boolean Algebra.
Some of the features of A digital circuits include:
Operating Speed: The speed of a logic gate depends on the time that elapses between the application of a signal to an input terminal and the resulting change in logical state in the output terminals. It takes into consideration the transition time which is the rise and fall of pulse duration and propagation delays. Both of these times depend upon the loading and increase with an increase in load. The more inputs are attached to the output of a logic gate, the more load is to be handled by that output.
Fan-In: The fan-in of a logic gate is defined as the number of inputs coming from similar circuits that it can handle properly
Fan-Out: In general, a logic circuit is required to drive several logic inputs. The fan-out is defined as the maximum number of standard logic inputs that output can drive reliably. For example, a logic gate that is specified to have a fan-out of 8 can drive 8 standard logic inputs. if this number exceeds the output logic-level voltages cannot be guaranteed.
Power Dissipation: This is the amount of power dissipated in an IC. It is gotten by the current, Icc, that it draws from the Vcc supply and equals Vcc Icc where Icc is the average value of Icc(0) and Icc(1). This power is specified in mW. Lower power dissipation is a desirable feature for any IC.
Power Supply Requirements: Every IC needs a certain amount of electrical power to operate. The power is supplied by one or more power-supply voltage connected to the power pin (or pins) on the chip. Obviously, low power consumption is a desirable feature in any digital ICs.
Noise Immunity: The noise immunity of a logic circuit refers to the circuits' ability to tolerate noise voltages on its inputs. A quantitative measure of noise margin. Higher the noise margin, better the logic circuit.
Operating Temperature Range: Digital ICs should be capable of operating for temperature ranging from 00Cto 700C for consumers and from -550C to +1250C for military applications.
Digital Electronic circuits are relatively easy to design.
It has a higher accuracy when compared to analog
Transmitted signals are not degraded over long distances.
Digital Signals can be stored easily.
Digital Electronics is comparatively more immune to ‘error’ and ‘noise’. But in case of high-speed designs, a small noise can induce error in signal.
More Digital Circuits can be fabricated on integrated chips; this helps us obtain complex systems in a smaller size.
The voltage at any point in a Digital Circuit can be either high or low; hence there is less chance of confusion.
Digital Circuits are more reliable since its output is invariant with respect to a time whereas analog circuit output changes with change in the environment.
The transmission rate is higher, with wider broadband width.
It is more secure.
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