Biometrics is an information technology branch that seeks to create a private trait-based identity. The term "Biometrics" consists of two phrases: "Bio" (Greek word for life) and "Metrics."
Biometrics is currently a buzzword in the information security domain as it offers a high degree of precision in an individual's identification.
Biometrics is a technology that identifies, analyzes and measures the unique physical and behavioral characteristics of an individual. It is mainly used for identification and access control, or for identifying individuals who are under surveillance. Among the features measured are the face, fingerprints, hand geometry, handwriting, iris, retinal, vein, and voice.
The major types of biometric identifiers are based on either physiological characteristics or behavioral characteristics.
Facial Recognition: The analysis of facial features or patterns for the authentication or recognition of an individual's identity. It is a category of biometric software that maps an individual's facial features mathematically and stores the data as a faceprint. Most face recognition systems either use eigenfaces or local feature analysis.
Fingerprints: It is the process of electronically obtaining and storing human fingerprints. The use of the ridges and valleys (minutiae) found on the surface tips of a human finger to identify an individual. It involves the automated capture, analysis, and comparison of a specific characteristic of the human body. There are several different ways in which an instrument can bring out the details in the pattern of raised areas (called ridges) and branches (called bifurcations) in a human finger image.
Finger Geometry: This is the use of 3D geometry of the finger to determine individual identity. It involves the process of extracting information provided by the 3D structure of the hand, and more specifically the fingers, as captured by a 3D sensor.
Iris Recognition: This involves the use of unique information found in the iris to identify an individual.
Vein Recognition: This is also known as vascular biometrics, which refers to technology that measures parts of a subject's circulatory system which is as unique to her as a fingerprint. It uses optical scanning technology to capture vein images in your palm, finger, or eyeball to identify and individual.
Retina Recognition: This is the use of patterns of veins in the back of the eye or retinal blood vessel to identify and recognize an individual. Retina scanners are in use in many military bases, nuclear reactors, and other high-security locations due to their strength as a security measure.
Voice Recognition: This is a type of individual identification that uses voiceprint biometrics technology. This heavily relies on the vocal characteristics of an individual.
DNA Matching: This is the identification of an individual using the analysis of segments from DNA. A DNA "picture" features columns of dark-colored parallel bands and is equivalent to a fingerprint lifted from a smooth surface. To identify the owner of a DNA sample, the DNA "fingerprint," or profile, must be matched, to a DNA profile stored in a database.
Gait Recognition: This is the use of individuals walking style or gait to determine identity. This simply refers to automated vision methods that use video of human gait to recognize or to identify a person.
Hand Geometry Recognition: This is the use of the geometric features of the hand such as the lengths of fingers and the width of the hand to identify an individual. The human hand is more distinctive than human eyes can perceive. This distinctiveness can be measured with computer-based imaging and measurement techniques and identity of an individual can be associated with the distinctiveness of his/her hand.
Typing Recognition: The use of the unique characteristics of a person typing for establishing his/her identity.
Signature Recognition: This is a biometric technology that stores and compares the behavioral patterns which are integral to the process of generating a signature. Signature recognition is a behavioral biometric. It can be operated in two different ways:
a. Static: In static mode, users write their signatures directly on paper, then digitize it through an optical scanner or a camera, and the biometric system recognizes the signature by analyzing its shape and attributes.
b. Dynamic: In dynamic mode, users write their signatures in a digitizing tablet, which acquires the signature in real time. Dynamic recognition is also known as "on-line". Dynamic information usually consists of the following information:
Spatial coordinate x(t)
Spatial coordinate y(t)
Biometrics uses physical characteristics, like your face, fingerprints, irises or veins, or behavioral characteristics like your voice, handwriting or typing rhythm.
Biometric Recognition systems usually seem complicated, however, they work in three simple processes:
1. Enrollment: The first time you use a biometric system, it records basic information about you, like your name or an identification number. It then captures an image or recording of your specific trait.
2. Storage: Contrary to what you may see in movies, most systems don't store the complete image or recording. They instead analyze your trait and translate it into a code or graph. Some systems also record this data onto a smart card that you carry with you.
3. Comparison: The next time you use the system, it compares the trait you present to the information on file. Then, it either accepts or rejects that you are who you claim to be.
In Biometric Recognition, there are three major components needed to accomplish the whole process and they are:
1. Sensor: This detects the characteristic being used for identification
2. Computer: This reads and stores the information captured from the sensor.
3. Biometric Software: This analyzes the characteristics in the stored information, translates it into a graph or code and performs the actual comparisons.
Some of the numerous advantages include:
1. It is difficult to fake or steals, unlike passwords.
2. It offers convenience and efficiency.
3. It helps to save costs.
4. Are non-transferable.
5. Templates have less storage to take up.
6. It offers a higher return on investment.
7. It offers privacy and more reliable.
Accurate Accountability and Identification: Biometric systems make your identity more precise, reducing your likelihood of unwanted breaches. Access is given with this sort of security system not by passwords or smart cards, but by biological features such as iris scans or fingerprints that are hard to duplicate or forge.
Reliability: is a psychological word which is the capacity to rely on someone or something. It improves the reliability of human identification when it comes to biometrics technology because of its unforgettable, non-transferable and robust safety characteristics.
Scalability: Modern technology of biometrics is extremely scalable. Various dimensions and settings have a solution. This technology advancement promotes the scale of its use in all industries and also makes it accessible for personal use.
Efficiency: by making its workforce more precise, reliable, productive and timely, biometric technology improves organizational effectiveness.
Productivity: Biometrics technology improves accountability by accurately tracking the motion and operations of the the staff. It makes the worker give his greatest effort knowing that all his / her contribution counts, which improves the organization's general productivity.
In the Full Course, you will learn everything you need to know about Biometrics with Certification upon successful completion of the exams.
Biometrics - Introduction/Overview
Biometrics - Modalities
Biometrics - Physiological Modalities
Biometrics - Behavioral Modalities
Biometrics - Voice Recognition
Biometrics - Multimodal Biometric Systems
Biometrics - Modality Selection
Biometrics - System Performance
Biometrics - Pattern Recognition & Biometrics
Biometrics - Signal Processing & Biometrics
Biometrics - Image Processing
Biometrics - System Security
Biometrics - Exams and Certification
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