### What is Basic Electricals:

Basic Electricals are the fundamental components of any electrical system and the method with which electrical devices are engineered to work. Some Basic Electrical components include Electricity, Electric Voltage, Electric Current, Resistance, Inductors, Capacitors, etc.

### What is Electricity?

Electricity is everywhere; it lights our way, cooks our food and something we used in our day to day activities. So what is electricity and where does it come from and how does it work? In its simplest terms, electricity is the movement of charge, which is considered by convention to be, from positive to negative.

There are three basic ways by which we generally produce electricity.

1. Electromechanical Process: In this process, a conductor moves in a magnetic field and the conductor cuts the field flux lines electricity is produced in the conductor. All electrical generators such as DC generators, alternators, and all kinds of dynamos work based on this principle.
2. Electrochemical Process: In this process, chemical energy gets converted to electrical energy. Battery electricity is produced due to chemical reactions.
3. Solid State Electric Generation: This is the most modern process of electricity generation. This is when free electrons and holes are generated at a PN junction and distribution of charge carriers gets imbalanced across the PN junction when the junction is exposed in the light. These free electrons and holes and their imbalanced distribution across the junction cause electricity in an external circuit. On this principle, PV solar cells work.

### Basic Electricals Concept:

Charge:

The concept of electricity arises from an observation of nature. We observe a force between objects, that, like gravity, acts at a distance. The source of this force has been given the name charge. A very noticeable thing about electric force is that it is large, far greater than the force of gravity. Unlike gravity, however, there are two types of electric charge. Opposite types of charge attract, and like types of charge repel. Gravity has only one type: it only attracts, never repels.

Conductors, Insulators and SemiConductors:

• Conductors: are made of atoms whose outer, or valence, electrons have relatively weak bonds to their nuclei, as shown in this fanciful image of a copper atom. When a bunch of metal atoms is together, they gladly share their outer electrons with each other, creating a "swarm" of electrons not associated with a particular nucleus. A very small electric force can make the electron swarm move. Copper, gold, silver, and aluminum are good conductors.
• Insulators: are materials whose outer electrons are tightly bound to their nuclei. Modest electric forces are not able to pull these electrons free. When an electric force is applied, the electron clouds around the atom stretch and deform in response to the force, but the electrons do not depart. Glass, plastic, stone, and air are insulators.
• SemiConductors: materials fall between insulators and conductors. They usually act like insulators, but we can make them act like conductors under certain circumstances. The atomic-level details of how semiconductor devices work are governed by the theories of quantum mechanics.

Current:

Current is the flow of charge. This flow of electrical charge is referred to as electric current. Current is reported as the number of charges per unit time passing through a boundary. Since electrons are free to move about in metals, moving electrons are what makes up the current in metals.

Power:

Power is defined as the rate energy (U) that is transformed or transferred over time. Electric power is the rate of energy consumption in an electrical circuit. We measure power in units of joules/second, also known as watts. An electric circuit is capable of transferring power. Current is the rate of flow of charge, and voltage measures the energy transferred per unit of charge.

### Advantages of Studying Basic Electricals:

1. It helps to understand how electrical devices work.

2. It helps to make simple and accurate electrical calculations and decisions.

3. It helps to be aware of some basic electrical connections for safety.

4. It helps to be aware of the basic concepts of electricals.

5. It creates job employment for electricians.

6. It creates a self-employment opportunity.

### Components of Basic Electricals:

1. Electricity

2. Electric Resistance

3. Electric Voltage

4. Electric Power

5. Electric Current

6. Electric Efficiency

7. Resistor

8. Inductor

9. Capacitor

10. Electromagnetism

11. Electrostatic

Electricity is the set of physical bodies linked with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge.

Electric Resistance is an electrical quantity that measures how the devices reduces the current flowing through it. Resistance R =pxi/A or R=V/i.

Electric Voltage is the electric potential difference between two points of an electric field. e.g.  V which is the voltage is equal to Q2 - Q1 which is the electric potential difference at two different points.

Electric Power is the rate at which energy is consumed in an electric circuit. it is usually measured in watts: P=E/t.

Electric Current is the rate at which electric charge flows past a point or region. This means that an electric current exists when there is a flow of electric charge through a region.

Electric Efficiency is the ratio of output/input power.

Resistor is an electrical component that carries out the electrical resistance function to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, divide voltages, and terminate transmission lines where necessary.

Inductor is also known as a Coil, Choke, or Reactor. An inductor is an electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.

Capacitor is an electrical component that is responsible for storing electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is termed as Capacitance. The Capacitor was originally termed as a Condenser or Condensator.

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of both electric fields and magnetic fields which are responsible for the electromagnetic force.

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies stationary electric charges or fields electric charges as opposed to electric currents.

In the Full Course, you will learn everything you need to know about Basic Electricals with Diploma Certificate award upon successful completion of the exams. 